Welding Positions in the Oil and gas industry - Edgevarsity Blog Edgevarsity
Welding Positions in the Oil and gas industry

Welding Positions in the Oil and gas industry

Technology, equipment, and tools have filled our lives with endless possibilities. But, to get the most out of any of them, one must know how to utilize them, following all necessary guidelines effectively.

In the Oil and gas industry, welding is the essence of every process or equipment used. Therefore, it’s critical to carry out welding with utmost efficiency to avoid errors or damage to the products.

 Despite the rapid progress in engineering technology, some construction activities still need manual operation. And welding is one such activity. 

Approximately 95 percent of welding activities at petroleum construction fields continued to be performed as manual welding.

As welding is a combination of different processes, positions, methods, it is crucial to carry out the operation efficiently.

Here, let’s understand what welding positions are and their importance.

Types of welding positions

It is interesting to know that the welder has to maintain a proper position for every welding process. If not, the weld quality will be highly affected. 

Different factors affect the weld quality, but a welding position is an essential requirement of a welding process.

The different welding positions used in any welding process are usually:

  • Flat position
  • Horizontal position
  • Vertical position
  • Overhead position

Flat Position

This position is also denoted as a “down hand” position, and in this position, welding is easy. This is the primary welding position. The metals to be joined are placed flat, and the welder passes the electric arc from the top, moving across the workpiece in a horizontal direction. The joint’s top or upper side is welded together, allowing the molten material to settle down into its edges or groove.

According to ‘ASME section IX’, this welding position is known as the ‘1G’ position in the butt weld and ‘1F’ position for fillet weld.

Horizontal position

In this position, the plates are usually vertical, and the axis of the weld is horizontal. Therefore, it is comparatively more complicated than flat position welding.

When we say horizontal position welding, the welder needs to be efficient enough to carry out this welding process. The weld axis is horizontal. The position to be adhered to depends on the type of weld. For a fillet weld, the weld bead is formed at the intersection of plate and metal kept vertically and horizontally to make a 90-degree angle. 

When performing a groove weld, the weld face will be along a vertical plane. So here comes the requirement for a skilled welder who can effectively control the flow of molten metal by manipulating the electrode movement and speed. 

In most horizontal welding, if the workpiece is fixed, the welder can move around the joint. However, if the workpiece is rotatable, welding can be carried out with the welder being stationary.

Vertical Position

In the vertical welding position, the weld axis is vertical. The problem with this welding position is that when the welding is carried out, the molten metal flows down and piles up at the bottom area. Therefore, the flow of metal needs to be controlled by welding in downhill or upward vertical position.

Overhead Position

This welding position is one of the most difficult ones to carry out. In this case, the welding will be performed with the two pieces of metal above the welder, and the welder will have to angle himself and the equipment to weld the joints.

Whether it is butt weld or fillet weld, the level of difficulty of this position is the same for both weld types. In both types of weld, the entire molten metal tends to flow down without sticking to the base metal. Due to this reason, the welding may not meet the success criteria if a highly skilled welder does not carry it out.

From all the above explanations, let’s draw a simple conclusion. The welding position is a simple placement of the welder concerning the workpiece.
There are some combined welding positions denoted as 5G position and 6G position. To know more about them, check our Oil and Gas Piping Engineering course. If you are interested in the oil and gas domain and are looking out for a job-oriented course after graduation, welding engineering is a great option to pursue.


by Debashree P

Debashree is an Aeronautical engineer by education and a curious researcher by passion. She is passionate about engineering and technology. She is an avid technology writer who has a knack for developing content for websites, newsletters, blogs, articles, advertising and marketing materials based on the requirements. Technologies of her interest include Aviation, Oil & Gas and AI.